Thyroid Gland

80% of the world population is affected by diseases of thyroid gland, malignanancies of this gland account for 3% of oncological diseases. Ultrasound examination of thyroid gland is distinguished by high sensitivity for detection of focal and diffusive lesions. Additionally ultrasound examination of thyroid gland does not require preliminary preparation; it is completely safe and painless for patients. 
Ultrasound examination of thyroid gland offers an opportunity to estimate size and shape of the organ, reveal structural changes (goiter, cysts, cancer, adenoma), evaluate condition of adjacent lymph nodes that is essential in case of malignant cancer.

Indications for ultrasound examination of thyroid gland are:

Existence of dome-shaped, mass formation in the area of neck.

Complaints such as feeling of strangle, frequent causeless cough, increased irritation, anxiety.

Evaluation of efficiency of thyroid gland treatment.

Enlargement of thyroid gland that is revealed by palpation.

Relapse of thyroid gland diseases (nodular goiter, cancer).

Abnormal levels of thyroid gland hormones.

Signs of metabolism disturbance: increased loss of weight, excessive sweating, tachycardia, asthenia, hand tremor and so on. 

The following diseases may be detected by ultrasound examination of thyroid gland: 
Nodular and diffusive toxic goiter -during nodular goiter roughly circumscribed area is seen. Diffusive toxic goiter is characterized by enlargement of the sizes of gland without change in its structure.  
Cyst of thyroid gland is visualized as a cavity with defined borders and homogenous structure under ultrasound investigation. 
Thyroiditis-nodular goiter is frequently seen during thyroiditis and ultrasound picture appropriate to this disease is revealed. 
Cancer of thyroid gland-benign cancer is detected as the area with high density, which is distinguished from normal tissue, in case of malignant cancer- undefined borders are revealed. 
Additional information on diseases of thyroid gland is provided by Doppler imaging. The nature of blood supply for thyroid gland defines the functional condition of this organ. The result of Doppler imaging, against the background of pharmaceutical treatment, gives the possibility to estimate efficiency of therapy and select next step of the treatment.